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干货!英语100个必考知识点!(给孩子背一背!)

1单选

 

A. 冠词
 
(1)a/an 的区分:
 
注意以“U”开头的单词。
 
如果发字母u本身的音/ju:/,前面加a:
 
例如:
 
a useful book, 
a university, 
a usual chair;
 
如果发以外的音,前面加an:
 
例如:
 
an unusual chair, 
an unimportant meeting, 
an unforgetable experience
 
(2) 球类运动和三餐饭前不加the
 
例如:
 
play football 
play table tennis
 
乐器前加the
 
例如:
 
play the violin,
play the piano
 
(3)a  一个,the  那个
 
(4)高难度竞赛题a“u”;an“h”;an “s”;an “x”
 
用汉语拼音给字母注音,
 
如有声母,就用a,
 
如:
 
U—you;
如没有声母,就用an,
 
如:
 
H—ei qi,
S—ai si,
X—ai ke si
 
B. 连词
 
(1) 连词现象:
 
Although ,though 与but通常不连用because 与 so 不连用 if (如果)与then 不连用
 
(2) 就近一致连词
 
neither...nor , 
either...or ,
not only...but also  
not...but...
 
(3) 连接句子与to do 形式
 
because +句子(有完整主谓结构)
because of +介词宾语(名词等)
in order to do (in order not to do )   
in order that +句子
so as to    
so as that +句子   
so...that +句子
too...to do    
enough to do    
so good a book that +句子
such a good book that+句子   
so good that+句子
 
(4) 重要联词的应用
 
unless(=if not)除非   
or 否则(威胁,劝告)  
as if / as though (仿佛)
even if / even though (即使)   
not...until (直到...才)
 
C. 介词
 
(1) 介词+doing 介词+ 代词宾格形式 Neither of us is late.
 
The book is for you. 
The knife is used for cutting things.
Tom is sitting between him and me.(禁用“I”)
 
关联记忆:
 
介意 Mind + doing
Would you mind my smoking here?
 
(2) on in at 的用法:
 
表时间:on(天优先,只要涉及天的概念就用on);in(时段);at (时刻)
 
on the morning of April 1st. 
on a rainy night 在一个雨天的夜晚
at the same time
 
(3) 表伴随:
 
with / without ,或doing   
 
She is a girl with long hair.
She is a girl wearing a new dress.
 
(4)表方式:by bike,on foot 没有冠词“a”或名词复数
 
What time is it by your watch?   
The boss pays us by week.
He beat her with a book.(with后要带a或复数)
speak in English    
Write in ink
 
 (5)介词(不加the)+名词
 
at table 在桌旁且在吃饭(两层意思)
at the table 在桌旁具体干什么不清楚
at school
in the school
 
D. 名词
 
(1) 单复数特殊变化:
 
男、女、脚foot-feet、
牙、鹅goose-geese、
孩子people(可数名词),
sheep(羊)  
deer(鹿) 
单复数同形中、日不变;
英、法a-e; 
美、德该死(加S)
Amercians,Germans
 
(2) 名词的复数重心转移:
 
This is an old pair of shoes. I want a new pair .
 
(3) 带性别的复合词组:
 
women(变) 
doctors(变)
bus lines(只变最后一词)
 
E. 动词
 
(1)动词变化三大黄金法则:主谓一致 ,就近一致, 双动词关系
 
主谓一致:谓语动词跟着主语发生变化
 
第三人称单数现象(集体名词做主语)
 
Our class are playing football now (与人有关的动作)
 
Our class is a small one (整体)
 
主谓一致之就近一致(必考):
 
There be 句型
Either or  Neither...nor...
not only...but also..  
 
Not only they but also I am wrong.
 
时态一致:从句与主句时态一致
 
He said he had been there for an hour.
 
He said the sun is bigger than the moon.(自然规律自然现象用一般现在时态)
 
He said the moon is running around the earth.(错误,应改为一般现在时态)
 
 时态一致之时态变异(必考):
 
A. 瞬间动词的-ing形式表将来
 
The plane is taking off in an hour.
The old man is dying.(将要死了)
 
B. 条件状语从句:一般现在时表将来
 
I don t know if he will come tomorrow.   
 
If he comes, I will call you.
 
I will ring you as soon as I finish my work.
 
I won’t go out until my homework is done.
 
典型考题:
 
A. I will go swimming.    
B. If you go, so will I.
 
双动词关系:
 
单句中,若有两个动词(be动词,行为动词,不包括助动词)他们的关系有四种:
 
and 连接——动作先后或并列发生,前后形式一致
 
改为to do——动作未做,
 
准备做改为doing——动作正在做或已做
 
 改为-ed 形式——后一动作被动发生
 
特例: 
 
使、让(make ,let, have)
 
主动不带to,被动带to
 
make sb. do
make sb not do
be made to do   
let sb. do
 
The teacher asked the students to stop talking and to listen to her.
 
I have my carrepaired.(我请人修理了我的车。车被人修)
 
I have repaired my car.(我修理了我的车。现在完成时态)
 
I have him repair my car.(我让他修我的车。Have ab do sth)
 
(2)动词分类与句型转换
 
be 动词 am, is, are, was, were
 
助动词:
 
(1)do, does, did—帮助行为动词做句型转换
 
(2)have, has, had,will, would, shall, should 帮助表时态
 
(3)can, may, must, need 帮助表情态
 
行为动词 like, cry, smile...等等(占99%) 行为动词的所有句型转换均需do家族三兄弟do、does或did帮忙
 
Be动词、助动词不需任何帮忙
 
I don t have lunch at home. Neither do you.
 
(前后主语不一样,Neither do you主谓倒装)
 
I have been here an hour. So have you.
 
(前后主语不一样,Neither do you主谓倒装)
 
A. I bought a new book ,Tom.    
 
B. So you did.(I 和you 指同一个人,主谓不倒装)
 
(3) 初中重点动词短语
 
四个to后接—ing形式的短语(to在该短语中作介词用)
 
prefer doing to doing
prefer to do   
prefer to do rather thando
 
like ... better than... (类似; 像; …)
be used to doing (习惯于...)
used to do (过去通常)    
be used to do (被用来做...)
look forward to doing 盼望  
make a contribution to doing 采取措施/为......做贡献
 
重要短语或相关词
 
turn on, 
turn off, 
turn up, 
turn downtake off,
land on  
put on, 
wear, 
dress, 
wear out, 
in red   
eat up, 
sell out, 
put away, 
put off
 
人花费
 
spend... (in) doing sth    
spend on sth
pay... for...  
payment报酬
repay报答
 
物花费
 
It takes... to do 
cost 价值
speak in English, 
say it in English,
say a word
tell a story, 
talk about sth.   
talk with sb. 
talk to sb.
 
(4) 表事物特征常用一般现在时
 
The pen writes well.   
The music sounds nice.
The food tastes nice.
 
 
F. 形容词、副词
 
(1)比较  
 
A=B:
 
as 原形as / not as (so)... as...
 
A>B:
 
more...than...比较级标志词  than
 
A< B: 
 
less...than...
 
最高级:
 
典型标志词:in ,of , among
 
最高级和比较级的转换:
 
The Changjiang River is the longest river in China.
 
The Changjiang River is longer than any other river in China.
 
The Changjiang River is longer than any river in India.
 
A≠B 用比较级解释句子
 
This food isn t so delicious as that food.
 
This food is less delicious than this food.
 
That food is more delicious than this food.
 
必须掌握的修饰比较级的四个词:

 

much
a little 
even
far
 
He is much taller than Tom.
 
比较级、最高级的不规则变化:
 
口诀:
两病两多并两好,距离老远少迟到
 
bad/ill : 
worse worst
much/many : 
more most
good/well : 
better best :
far : 
farther farthest :
further furthest :
old : 
older oldest :
elder eldest :  
little :
less least :
 
(2) 后接形容词的动词
 
be 动词
 
感官动词:look taste smell feel sound
 
使和让:make let
 
变与不变:get go change turn keep remain
 
He looks tired
 
The food tastes nice so it sells well.
 
(3) 特殊句型:
 
比较级 and 比较级......“越来越......”   
more and more 越来越多
 
He is growing taller and taller.
 
The +比较级“越......越......”
 
The sooner you come, the earlier we would arrive.
 
She can t be more beautiful!(她漂亮极了。)
 
I have never seen a more beautiful girl!
 
She can t help crying.(can’t help doing 忍不住)
 
She can t wait to open the box.(can’t wait to do 迫不及待)
 
G. 数词
 
分数 three sixths= 3/6   
three and three is six   3+3=6
I want a few more.还要一点  
once more.  再来一遍
two books more 再来两本书  
a quarter =1/4 
three quarters / three fourths = 3/4
200个 two hundred   
几百个:hundreds of
 
H. 代词
 
介词/代词宾格形式  
 
all of us,
each of them
 
反身代词:
 
help yourself to ...,
help yourselves to..., 
I study for myself.
 
宾语与主语指向一致,用反身代词
 
物主代词:
 
yours = your book   
Thank you = Thanks
something nice   
something else
another是an other 的缩写  
others = other books
one... the other...
 
I have two books. One is old, the other is new.
(总数为2 ,2-1=1 ,后面的数量为准确的1)
 
20... the others...
 
There are forty people in the room. Ten of them are Young, the others are old.
(总数准确,20-10=10,后面的数量也为准确且超过1)
 
some... others...
 
There are a lot of people in the room. Some are Young, others are old.  
(总数不准确,后面的数量也为不准确)
 
不定代词作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数
 
Is every one here? No, they aren’t.
 
some water一些水   
someone 某个人
some time   
sometime  time 时间  
some times   
sometimes  times 次数  一些次数
 
某次:
 
a few  few
fewer
fewest  a little  
little
less
least
 
掌握技巧:
 
few:三个字母组成,数量少,数得清,修饰可数名词
little:六个字母组成,数量多,数不清,修饰不可数
a 表示一个,肯定
a few books 有一些书   
few books 没有书
a little water 一些水  
little water 没有水
too much
too many
much too
many too(错误书写)
 
把前面的词划掉,后面的接什么,合起来就可以接什么
 
英语的“两个与三个”
 
两个都——both  
两个都不——neither
两者中任何一个——either  
三个都——all
三个都不——all  
三者中任何一个——any
两者之间——between  
三者之间——among
 
也:
 
either
too
also
as well as
 
例如:
 
You like English,I like it,too.
You aren’t right, I’m not, either.
He can also swim.
He as well as you is late.
(注意非and连接,根据主语He决定谓语动词形式)
 
I. 其它
 
宾语从句
 
动词+8w/8h + 主 + 谓(注意主谓不倒装)
 
正:He asked me where I had been the day before.
 
误:He asked me where had I been the day before.
 
 
 
口语交际三大原则:
 
学会道谢:
 
别人帮了忙,要感谢;别人没帮上忙,也要感谢,
 
如说“Thank you all the same”;
 
受到别人的称赞,也要感谢。
 
学会道歉:
 
没帮上别人的忙,要道歉;
 
弄错了,要道歉。
 
学会表示祝福、欣赏和同情:
 
别人干得好,要给与赞扬;
 
别人开始干某事,要给与祝福;
 
别人遇到不幸的事,要表示同情,
 
如:
 
“I am sorry to hear that”
 
How和what引导的感叹句
 
宾语从句一般不用疑问语气(疑问词放在从句句首,但主谓不倒装)。
 
there be句型——就近一致原则,与have表示“有”的区别。
So
 
she句型、反意疑问句——注意动词分类即可。
 
三大从句:
 
名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句)可用“什么”代替
 
诀窍:缺啥补啥,啥都不缺填that
 
从句为疑问,基本语序为:
 
8w,8h,if
或whether+主语+谓语
 
定语从句——起限定作用,可用“哪一个”之类的词代替先行词+连接词+句子连接词:没有what
 
状语从句——叙述事件发生的时间、地点、原因、目的等背景因素
 
单项选择做题要点:
 
先看选项,认清是什么考点,考什语法点或知识点;
 
再读题进行斟酌。
 
做题速度,2题/分钟。
 
力争15分拿14分!
 

2完型填空

 
 此类文章词汇一般较简单。
 
认真琢磨第一段第一句话的大意。
 
弄清全文何时、 何地、何人、何事四大要素之后才填选项。 
 
切忌:
 
未通读文章前边看边填。
 
注意上下文的关联,尤其注意 文中 so、 and、 but 等连词透漏出的答案信息。 
 

3阅读理解

 
A、B两篇,不能失分 划出文章中的重点句子
 
C、D两篇,拔高篇 划出考题中的对应词 
 
有疑问的地方作好标记以便回头检查 
 

4解释句子

 
读原句、识别考点、书写时注意动词的三大黄金法则 
 
A类 初中重点句型的对应 
 
(1) 
 
What do you think of ...?
How do you like...? 
 
(2) 
 
What is it like ?
How is it ? 
 
(3) 
 
Spend …
doing sth spend… 
on sth
cost 
take…to do
pay ...for … 
 
(4) 
 
more than 
not as... as 
less than   
not so...as 
 
(5) 最高级—比较级
 
(6) 
 
too ... to 
enough to
so ... that not enough to 
 
(7) 
 
so good a book
such a good book 
 
(8) 
 
hear from
receive letters from 
 
(9) 
 
be afraid of doing
be afraid to do 
 
(10)
 
It s time for sth
It s time to do sth. 
 
(11)
 
prefer doing to doing
prefer to do rather than do
like ... better than 
 
(12)
 
have a good time 
enjoy oneself 
 
(13)
 
形式主语it To learn English is very important. 
It代替作形式主语 It is very important to learn English .
 
(14)
 
What is wrong with you? 
What is the matter with you ? 
 
(15)
 
be busy doing sth. 
be busy with sth. 
 
(16)
 
What a good book it is!
How good the book is!
 
(17)
 
Why not go with us ?
Why don t you go with us? 
 
(18)
 
Hurry up, or you ll be late
If you don t hurry up, you ll... 
 
(19)
 
borrow from
lend to 
 
(20)
 
间接引语变直接引语:“一主二宾三不变”
 
B类单句—复合句 
 
(1) not...until 
 
(2) both...and ....neither ...nor ... not only...but also... 
 
(3) 
What to do  how to do it 
I don t know what I should do. 
I don t know what to do. 
I don t know how to do it. 
 
C类 句意解释 
 
He is the same height as me. 
He is as tall as me. 
He founded the company.
He is the founder of the company.
 

5作文 

 
(1) 注意分2-3段,注意文采 
 
(2) 表述句子:先主谓后状语—I will go first 较长定语放后边 
 
She is a girl with long hair. 
The book on the desk is mine. 
 
(3) 必用句型:
 
not only...but also.. 
more and more 
spend ...doing ...
why not...prefer doing ...
to doing ... 感叹句 
 
(4) 复查所有动词:是否漏掉了动词,是否符合三大黄金法则 
 
例文:
 
Fathers’Day My father is not only my best friend but also my best teacher.In my life, he is like the sun in my heart. When I get intotrouble, he will teach me how to become braver and stronger. At the same time, he always teaches me how to get on well with my classmates and help them. With his help,I have made a lot of friends in my school.
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